Algar, Alger, Algore, Augar, Augur, Agar, Elgar, Elger: (i) Ailgarus fulius Lucie 1151-3 DC (L); Ailgarus, Agare (abbot of Faversham) 1193-9, 1200-4 St. Greg (K); Eylgar de Berwe 1273 RH (Sx); Elgarus,
Ailgarus King c1232 Clerkenwell (K); Robert Elger 1271 AD iv (Nf); Walter Eylgar, Elgar 1317 AssK. OC E[elgnr 'noble spear' which occurs in DB as Algar. (ii) Alfgerus, Elfger Algerus 1066 DB (L, Nf, Sf);
Elfger de Brademere, Alger c1095 Bury (Sf); Algerus faber 1150 DC (L); simon, Thomas Alger 1221 ElyA (Sf), 1297 MinAcctCo (Y). ON Alfgeirr, Oda Alger. Some of these forms may be from OE Elfger or Ealhere,
but all are from counties where Scandinavian influence was strong. (iii) Algar c1095 Bury (Sf); Algarus Dalling 1210 Cur (C); William Algar 1221 AssWo; Walter Elgar 1234 FFSf; Thomas Algor 1260 AssC. OE
Elfgar 'elf-spear' occurs once in DB as Alfgarus or Elgar, otherwise Elgar, Algar. OE Ealdgar 'old spear' is DB Ealgarus. Elfgar is much the more common name and both appear later almost regularly as Algar.
These surnames may derive from either or E[elgnr.
Alger, Aljer, Auger: Alcher (Alg(h)erus Exon) 1066 DB (D); Alcherus Venator 1166 P (Ess); Auchere filius Henrici 1327 SRC; Willelmus filius Auger 1346 SRWo; Ailwin Alher, Alcher 1180, c1216 Bart (Lo);
Walter Alger 1275 SRWo; Henry Auger 1279 RH (Hu); John Aucher 1428 FA (!); William Awger 1498 FrY. OE Ealhhere 'temple army', which, through Anglo-Norman vocalization of l, became Aucher, Auger. Cf. AYER.
Aler (with a hard g) is from ON Alfgeirr. V. ALGAR.
Source: Dictionary of British Names 2nd Edition by P. H. Reaney with corrections by R. M. Wilson © 1976 page 5
Some OE names have been influenced by Anglo-Norman pronunciation, e.g. Alger, Aljer, Auger, from OE Ealhhere 'temple-army', which became Alcher, Aucher and Auger.
Source: The Origin of English Surnames by P. H. Reaney © 1967 pg. 109 "Surnames From Native Personal-Names"
Auger, Augier, Augur, Aucher. - Bapt. 'the son of Auger' or 'Aucher,' probably a French form of Oger, whence Odger, q.v. Auger and Aucher are treated as the same name in the Visitation of Essex (1541),
pp. 36, 181, 211, 753. Henry Auger, alias fil. Aucher, co. Camb. 1273. A. Auger fil. Eudon, co. Salop, ibid. John fil. Aucheri, co. Cam., ibid. 1581. Nicholas Awger and Elizabeth Russell: Marriage Lic.
(London), i. 103. 1674. Buried-Elizabeth Aucher, Bart., co. Kent: St. Mary Aldermary (London) p. 189.
Source: A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames (with special American Instances) by Charles Wareing Bardsley © 1901 page 68